Do a good job in safety supervision and implement

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Do a good job in safety supervision and implement dynamic control

(author Shi Shao Gonggao Yingzhuan)

the business scope of supervision is not invariable, Article 4 of the regulations on the administration of safe production of construction projects, which came into force on February 1st, 2004, stipulates that "construction units, survey units, design units, construction units, project supervision units and other units related to the safe production of construction projects must abide by the provisions of the laws and regulations on safe production of construction projects, ensure the safe production of construction projects, and undertake the safe production of construction projects in accordance with the law." Therefore, safety supervision is regarded as an important part of construction supervision, and the supervision responsibilities of safety production in the construction process are specified in the experimental process. To do a good job in safety supervision, we must recognize, understand and identify the safety supervision of construction

1. There are many unsafe factors in construction

1.1 construction engineering products are fixed, large in volume and long in production cycle. Once the construction is completed, a building and a facility will be fixed. Construction and production activities are implemented around buildings and structures. A large number of manpower, materials, machinery and equipment are concentrated in a limited site for a long time of comprehensive operation, and unsafe factors occur from time to time

1.2 there is a large flow of personnel and machines. After a building or structure is completed, personnel and machines should be transferred to a new location to build a new building or structure. Personnel and machines should flow in different places and regions, and mobility increases unsafe factors

1.3 manual operation has high labor intensity and physical consumption. Physically, psychologically and behaviorally, personnel are prone to ideological and emotional fluctuations in production speed, working conditions and environment, which will produce unsafe factors

1.4 there are many high-altitude operations in the open air, and buildings are built from low to high, so most workers work in the open air. It is hot in summer, cold in winter, windy and sunny, poor working conditions, and many unsafe factors

1.5 the shape of buildings changes greatly and the regularity is poor. The construction conditions and unsafe factors of each building from commencement to completion, each process, different production processes and different construction sites also change at any time. The regularity of building construction is also dynamic in different sites, which is accompanied by the dynamics of unsafe factors

1.6 the diversity of machine and equipment operations and cross operations have increased significantly, and the safety protection devices of facilities also have certain limitations. In addition, the complex transformation of building construction makes unsafe factors occur from time to time

from the characteristics and dynamics of building construction, it can be seen that unsafe factors are multifaceted. Grasping the main contradictions, finding out the parts, processes and links prone to accidents, and taking measures to eliminate the hidden dangers and unsafe factors in these parts can prevent accidents. This requires the supervisor to grasp the characteristics of construction, grasp the pulse of the project, and implement safety supervision

2. Formulate safety supervision measures, implement safety supervision

2.1 formulate safety supervision plans and rules, and determine supervision procedures. Any engineering process or the production of a component has a corresponding process flow. If a process flow is not strictly operated, industrial accidents may occur. The supervisor shall formulate corresponding scientific safety supervision procedures and corresponding inspection and acceptance methods for different construction processes. Only in this way can the purpose of safety control be achieved

2.2 Article 14 of the Regulations stipulates that the project supervision unit shall review whether the safety technical measures or special construction schemes in the construction organization design meet the mandatory standards for engineering construction

in the process of supervision, if the engineering supervision unit finds that there are hidden dangers of safety accidents, it shall require the construction unit to rectify; When the situation is serious, the construction unit shall be required to temporarily stop the construction and report to the construction unit in time. If the construction unit refuses to rectify or stop construction, the project supervision unit shall report to the relevant competent department in time

the project supervision unit and the supervision engineer shall carry out supervision in accordance with laws, regulations and mandatory standards for project construction, and undertake supervision over the safety production of construction projects. The supervisor should focus on whether it is targeted for the project

2.3 the supervisor shall verify the safety qualification and supporting documents of each contractor; The safety organization system and safety personnel allocation of the construction site, the safety production system and safety management network, the safety production rules and regulations, the safety production and operation procedures of the type of work, and the work license of special operators. New processes, new technologies, new materials and new products include: tensile strength testing machine, universal material testing machine, vulcanizer, shoe leather, rubber tires, high molecular/plastic, paper packaging, electrical equipment, furniture/office desks and chairs, textiles, sports equipment, concrete and other industries used in the use of quality testing instruments and safety technical solutions and safety measures. Process handover inspection, safety inspection measures for divisional and subdivisional works, technical performance and safety conditions of main construction machinery and equipment

2.4 the energy-saving design of indemnificatory housing buildings submitted for the review and filing of construction drawing design must meet the requirements of this guidance. It is necessary to understand the factors such as the project site environment and human obstacles, and put forward preventive measures in time to make the self inspection system of the contractor operate normally, and the quality management system and quality assurance system effective. The supervisor shall follow up and supervise the daily site in the form of on-site inspection, patrol inspection and parallel inspection in accordance with the requirements of the engineering supervision specifications; According to the progress of the project, the verification personnel should pay attention to the following problems when stopping the verification and calibration of the electronic universal testing machine. The safety supervision personnel should track and supervise the safety of each process, and inspect and verify whether the construction personnel operate according to the safety technical measures and procedures on site; Spot check and test the safety status of main processes and parts, and make records

2.5 the main task of safety supervision is to implement the national safety production guidelines and policies, urge the construction unit to organize the construction according to the safety production regulations and standards of construction, eliminate the risk, blindness and randomness in the construction, implement various safety technical measures, and focus on monitoring the hazard sources and weak links prone to accidents on the construction site. Effectively eliminate all kinds of unsafe hidden dangers, control and reduce all kinds of casualty accidents, and realize safe production

3. Safety supervision focuses on prevention

3.1 safety supervision runs through the whole process of construction and production from commencement to completion, and exists in each divisional and subdivisional works and each process. That is to say, where the safety measures are not implemented, there is the possibility of accidents. When supervising the implementation of safety protection measures for all parts, the safety supervisor should focus on the construction scheme of earthwork, construction scaffolding, formwork construction, high-altitude operation, cross operation, tower crane, gantry, well frame, vertical lifting machinery, temporary power consumption, design calculation value, whether the calculation method is correct, whether the type selection and material selection are in line with the actual project, and whether various safety measures in the design are comprehensive, Whether the time of safety technical disclosure and acceptance handover is reasonable according to the schedule, and focus on review and monitoring

3.2 such as safety supervision of earthwork. In the construction organization design, there should be a single earthwork construction plan, and there should be design calculations for construction preparation, excavation methods, grading, drainage, and slope support. When excavating the foundation pit manually, the operators should keep a safe distance of more than 2.5m; The excavation spacing of multiple machines is greater than 10m; Excavation should be carried out from top to bottom, layer by layer, and dangerous operations of digging the slope toe first are strictly prohibited. The excavation of foundation pit shall be conducted in strict accordance with the requirements. During the operation, pay attention to the stability of the slope at any time, and reinforce and deal with problems in time; In case of multi machine operation, the slope stability shall be checked to determine the safe distance between the machine and the slope. Protective railings are set around the deep foundation pit, and special ladders are provided for personnel to go up and down. Safety regulations shall be strictly implemented for the slope of earth moving roads and earthwork transformation operations. The safety facilities and equipment of the construction unit shall be inspected before entering the construction site to prevent unqualified safety facilities from entering the construction site and causing industrial accidents

3.3 the supervisor shall know in detail the safety setting out, mechanical facilities and mechanical equipment mobilization of the contractor. Before entering the site, the construction unit is required to provide the origin and address of machinery and safety facilities and the factory certificate of conformity for the review of the supervisor. The supervisor needs to investigate and understand the production process equipment of these manufacturers, and if necessary, sample and test the safety facilities, require the relevant units to provide the sampling test of safety facilities, and require the relevant units to provide the relevant drawings, design calculations and other relevant data of safety facilities, product technical performance and technical parameters, so as to determine the use of mechanical safety facilities after review. During the implementation of the project, the self inspection of the construction unit shall be checked at any time to grasp the safety situation and implement safety measures

4. Integrated management of safety supervision

4.1 with the continuous development of the construction supervision system, the scope of supervision is gradually expanding, and the concept of safety first and prevention first has gradually become popular. People realize that once a safety accident occurs, all efforts will come to naught and the whole team will suffer losses. Project quality, progress, investment and safety are inseparable, and should be managed in the whole process and all directions

4.2 as we all know, engineering projects are composed of multi-stage construction activities, and quality, progress, investment and safety are always in the unity of opposites of construction activities. The particularity and complexity of engineering projects are accompanied by the variability of internal and external environment. Uncertainty and safety hidden dangers exist in the process of engineering construction. Engineering projects need construction units, survey units, design units and construction units, The project supervision unit and other units related to the construction project can complete it with the cooperation of multiple parties. Therefore, integrated management must be carried out for engineering projects

4.3 safety production involves all people, units, machinery, equipment, facilities, tools and safety environment related to production at the construction site, and runs through the whole process of construction and production. In the construction stage of the project. The supervision personnel shall comprehensively supervise the construction process and promote the implementation of the overall construction project. For an organization to operate effectively, all members must have unified goals. The project shall implement the general objectives in the drawing design, bidding, contract signing, plan implementation, delivery and management documents, do a good job in supervision, carry out integrated management and implement dynamic control. At the same time, we must improve the quality of supervision personnel and cultivate a group of high-quality composite talents who understand both technology and management, both economy and law, both theory and practice, in order to achieve the goal of project supervision

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